Drilling Options. Professional Advice On Drilling

Boreholes are the most economical and efficient structures for the extraction of groundwater. In some cases, the absence of centralized water supply wells may be the only possible way security needs in water supply. Also, if necessary, production of construction dewatering, lowering of groundwater levels to protect against flooding underground facilities of industrial enterprises, mineral mining and reclamation under construction vodoponizitelnye (drainage) holes. In the practice of drilling wells for water most widely used following drilling methods: 1) rotary with a straight washing, 2) rotating with a purge air, and 3) rotary reverse circulation and 4) shock-rope. Others who may share this opinion include LEGO Papert Professor. Each of the methods used to oktory drilling of water wells has both its advantages and shortcomings described in the literature. The main advantages of rotary drilling are high mechanical drilling speed. Recently Viktor Mayer-Schönberger sought to clarify these questions. The major disadvantage – the need to supply water wells, drilling clay with a solution that requires work on razglinizatsii wells.

To get higher production rates under certain conditions is recommended to use the rotary drilling method to backwash without the use of drilling mud. Cable-drilling method is used when drilling into poorly known hydrogeological sections. This method also allows high-quality open aquifer, so as not requires the use of drilling mud. The filter can be set as "vpotay" and on the column casing. The rotational (rotary) drilling rig URB-applied 2A2, URB-3 AM, BDS-2, 5 and similar to method of drilling. With cable-drilling installation is used UKS-22M2, UGB-50, UOP-1VS. Choose type drilling rig is made depending on the assumed well design.

The installation must provide for drilling given depth and given initial and final diameters. In addition, the rig is to provide fastening borehole casing, the installation of filter columns. In many cases, especially when implementation of drilling wells for water for the private sector, if you can not travel rig based drilling vehicle to the place, and in the presence of aquifer groundwater to a depth of 20-30 m, through which can provide the stated need for water, by drilling small-sized rig. It is possible to combine the method of drilling wells: use cable-and rotary drilling methods. Basic requirements for the construction of water wells Choosing well design depends on several factors, the main ones are: the purpose of the wells, the final diameter, depth, hydrological conditions. So Also see where to drill – is not desirable to perform this procedure near the pavilions or in the construction of arbours. Specific design parameters depend on the type of water-lifting equipment, process and technology drilling and spacing needed cementing material handling methods and well casings. The construction of water wells must meet the following requirements: * high-quality opening of the aquifer to its operation with minimal resistance prifiltrovyh zones * Reliable aquifer isolation from each other (except when the latter are operated jointly) * minimum of metal * ease of construction and minimal cost, reliable operation * well, and the possibility of repair. These design requirements are very specific and well in some cases are complicated Depending on each other. Therefore, the selection and justification of a well design should be based on a thorough assessment of all factors, primarily those that are essential to the specific conditions production work. If the area of hydrogeology of poorly studied, it is advisable initially to open aquifer exploration well (which is allowed the use of mud) and the results Geophysical Research in the well (borehole logs) to clarify the design of production well, which runs along the trunk with the expansion of exploration to the required diameter.

Manufacturing Steel

The most commonly used for the manufacture of formwork steel, timber and plywood, and in recent years – plastic. Rational design are combined, in which the main and supporting elements is a metal, and as a deck that is in contact with the concrete – timber, water-resistant plywood, plastic. Quite often, use a fully metal casing. However, the metal casing in the winter to warm. Metal deck should be used for conversion in thermosetting casing. Entirely of wood or plywood formwork, while use (particularly well the first one), have several disadvantages: a large material consumption and low turnover. For similar reasons, inappropriate use of wooden posts as support formwork horizontal and inclined surfaces. Steel Formwork should be applied no less than brand FCZ.

To reduce the metal casing is desirable to use steel high marks, as well as bent and stamped profiles. For all kinds of connections, locks, spring clamps used special types of steel, including spring, marks 65G, 55GS, and others from the timber formwork using softwood and hardwood. Materials in contact with concrete, are made of lumber not less than grade III. In basically the same for the formwork is used softwood lumber: pine, spruce and larch, and hardwood – birch, and alder. Due to the cracking of the birch is not recommended to use it to make the deck. Supporting elements are made of lumber grade II, and for the runs using only wood of conifers. Of coniferous species produce the same inventory items formwork, stands taller than 3m, and other responsible design. For the manufacture of bearing cages are used softwood moisture content of 15% for all other elements – not more than 25%.

Board adjacent to the concrete, should be ostrogany and have a width not more 150mm. The thickness of the board shall appoint not less than 19mm. It is recommended to apply the sheet board. To apply the sliding formwork boards (staves), a width not exceeding 120 mm, mounted with a gap, which eliminates warping them. Most advisable to produce deck boards that are in contact with concrete, plywood. To do this, use water-resistant bakelite plywood grades and PBS FBSV 10mm or more. Synthetic surface veneer is much extends the life of the deck, lowers the adhesion to concrete and it allows you to receive high-quality concrete surfaces. To cover the plywood surfaces using a film based on paper or glass cloth impregnated with phenol formaldehyde or other polymers. Film is applied to the press with heated plates. Also used plastic film, fiberglass, fiberglass, laminates such as "getinaks" vinyl plastic. Plastics and film can be applied by pressure, sticker or freeze solid sheets. Applied as film coatings varnishes and paints. Most of the synthetic surfaces can be used to protect not only the plywood formwork and particleboard and fiberboard, and lumber. A number of coatings applied coating used to protect metal surfaces prior to coating which is etched and processed by mechanical means. Fully plastic casing is rarely used because of high costs and inefficiency. For the manufacture of such extensive use of glass reinforced plastic formwork sheet and a specially molded panels for formwork and other items. Leafy GRP is also used for the manufacture of concrete panel-cladding and insulation, these are also used for concrete, glass and other armotsement materials. – all building materials

Ground Installation

in the case of the construction company does not get easier for the cat in the bag. Companies always have a portfolio of this work, which can be available, although there may be undercurrents … Many construction firms after receiving an order simply employ ordinary shabashniki and act in the capacity of intermediaries. 2. in the case of a team working to invite preferably only on the recommendation. Workers will be disciplined by the fact that on your attitude will depend on the prospect of further employment – advice, on the other hand, you will protect yourself from quacks and rogues.

3. meet with prospective executor of your repairs at the facility where currently going repairs and assess the situation on the ground. 4. check the team / company can only be in asking them to perform at all repairs immediately, but some point, for example, add a coupler 5. estimates of all prices, complete list of works and the final sum to be up to the beginning of the repair or construction. In this case you will not have to think there will be enough for I have funds to complete the repair. 6. specialization better than universal, and some types of work it is desirable to withdraw from the general budget and request the third party specialists. For example: – electrical installation is desirable invite a local electrician with tolerances – for installation of air conditioning and installation of windows – it is better to invite a company which had purchased air conditioners / windows – the installation of satellite dishes – where the company invite installers plate was purchased – the installation of plumbing better to invite a large company with the license office, a real guarantee and advance shall discuss the materials and brands to place purchase and delivery of materials to them on condition granting of certificates – to install the doors, it is desirable to invite specialists of the company which were acquired by the door – for parquet, laminate, wood flooring is better to invite the experts of a large firm selling or producing these coatings 7. prepayment – can often be your main 'headache' at any stage of work, so it is advisable to make payments in stages according to pre-approved by both parties graphics, a nice repair!

Stretch Ceilings

The History of suspended ceilings has its origins in ancient Rome. While the ceilings are draped with a cloth that was carefully chosen to match the walls. The fabric wore out pretty quickly, then it just changed to a new one. In more recently, a second mention of the stretch ceilings. In Armenia in the 17th century was used for the manufacture of calico, which was impregnated with chalk. After it stretched on a frame, shrink sheeting, and created a kind of ideal spanned the ceiling. Modern suspended ceiling, this is the way we envision it, there was already in France about 30 years ago and became very popular.

What is a stretch ceiling? Stretch ceilings a flat surface, obtained by pulling the PVC film of special composition. As a material for stretch ceiling is used as polyester fabric, which is knitted polyester canvas, impregnated with polyurethane. In modern designs often use the first option – a ceiling made of PVC. A thin film or fabric is stretched on a special frame (fillet), which is fixed or a base ceiling, or on the perimeter walls. The resulting ceiling plane perfectly flat and homogeneous, has the form of a solid ceiling.

Garden Form

It is worth to remember that the bigger the artificial pond, the longer it gets warm water, and therefore less prone to clogging it and blooming. Miniature pond image based on the final form of polyethylene is desirable to buy the form from swamp area, so you can place water plants. If such zone not, you need to buy special containers in advance baskets, which are planted in the plant, then placing them in a pond at a depth corresponding to their requirements. It is convenient to use for such purposes and coconut pockets. Crucial moment in the device pool – set form. It is very important to choose a location for the device pool. It should not only fit well into the overall design of the garden, but also be open, well lit place, preferably away from trees whose roots may damage the integrity of your time with the reservoir. At the designated area put the form, mark with pegs and cord contours of the future reservoir, adding 15-20 cm with the expectation that it was easier not only to establish the form, but do podsypku.

The entire perimeter of the mold is removed, which can then be used in the garden. Soil dug up gradually, first to a depth of the first plane, then after marking in the same way until the last plane. The base of each plane and the slopes are carefully leveled and compacted. In this case all the roots and stones carefully removed. That establish a form without a problem, each profile to dig wider than the form.

A deep base – 10-15 cm deep. Thoroughly tamped base, podsypaya sand. The form should be smooth, be sure to check with the edge using the spirit level and the rules. Then fill the pond with water deep part about a third and begin podsypku sand and soil into the lateral gap between the dredged material and form.

First Clay

The first year proved it. Wall, we decided to build of adobe blocks made directly on the site. For us it was the best solution. First, we at the beginning of the work itself is time worked in the office and in the construction of walls to a greater extent relied on help from side. Still easier to teach a person to make bricks, to control the quality and pay for similar work by the piece.

Secondly, we needed a home large enough volume of 50 cubic meters adobe Make one whole season this amount, add up the walls and roof cover is very problematic. Third, we planned to build two-story house. At a height of 5 meters adobe is critical verticality of the walls erected. Pre-made dried flat brick greatly simplifies the task. First we worked ourselves adobe brick manufacturing technology. Find the ideal ratio of components for our clay, made a few forms future of bricks, including for the halves, they dug pits for mixing and drying terraces lined the bricks. After the first batch we encountered the first difficulty. Saman wonderfully stuffed in shape, but practically get it It was impossible.

The decision did not come immediately, but it paid off in full. It was necessary to form a wet rub the inside with sand and then fill it in adobe. Bricks began to slip out of shape easily and things got more fun. What I would advise the future builders of adobe. First of all, think about where you take your materials to construction sites. Despite the fact that the clay on our site everywhere underfoot, it appears that it will need much more than we expected. We went all the clay, which we have extracted the alignment space to build a house, and it's given a lot of our hill, and digging trenches for the foundations and cellars, but still we did not have it.

Composition

Critical components of any color are pigments. The paint is often perceived by the person as a mixture of pigments and binders – linseed oil, emulsion, latex. Rarely thinks about how he created or different color. And it's useful to know, because the elements that make up the color may different ways to behave in certain conditions. For example, some pigments from the effects of temperature change color. Mixing Pigments in certain proportions, can produce different colors, shades and properties of paint. Pigments are natural and synthetic. Natural – a natural material consisting of minerals.

Ingoda they are subjected to temperature processing. But artificial materials generally have a more vivid, well-defined color. The main property of the pigments, which must take into account when creating a paint, a coloring power. It determines how a particular color of paint you need to transfer color when mixed with white pigment. By natural pigments include: graphite, chalk, ocher, sienna, umber. Chalk – a common mineral, often used in waterborne, alkyd, oil paints. Also, the white pigments include lime. Black pigments – graphite, charcoal, manganese peroxide.

Natural yellow pigment formed from the ocher. And the colors can vary (from barely noticeable lemon to orange), depending on heat treatment. To get brown paint used umber, burnt sienna. Under the influence of temperature changes the color of umber, acquires red. Artificial pigments, often more expensive than natural ones. But they are highly resistant to external influences, as well as they do not lose color saturation for a long time. For synthetic dyes include red lead, white lead, chromium oxide, crown, green, mummy, Mars, cobalt, vermilion, ultramarine blue, black, paint for facades made on these pigments. White – the basic, commonly used pigment white. There are zinc, lead, titanium white. White lead because of toxicity are rarely used in domestic work. Whiting, obtained from zinc oxide, are a frequent component of the enamel and oil paints. Most high levels of resistance, opacity – a titanium white. However, they also have their own feature – a gradual color change, the acquisition of a yellowish tinge. Therefore, in the paint with pigments are often added blue dyes. The basic black dye is black, the resulting combustion with insufficient oxygen. Pigments in red – vermilion, mummy. The mummy eventually loses saturation of red, dim. Cinnabar is toxic because of mercury content. Minium has orange-red. Minium-based paint Lead from the released toxins are rarely used indoors. Mars provide an opportunity to get several warm shades – from yellow to red brown. To obtain a yellow crown use – lead, strontium, zinc. Lead crown harmful as other paints with a similar basis. Blue pigments colors are blue, cobalt, ultramarine. Green color is formed by adding zinc or lead paint pigment green. It in turn is made by mixing paint and yacht crown (yellow). Independently mix pigments found in its pure form is extremely dangerous. Dust clouds, falling into the organism can cause serious damage to health.

Modern Decorating Material

Linkrust – a modern decoration material, which is characterized by strength, durability and hygroscopicity. The material washes well, allows the use of disinfectants for decontamination. Form of linkrusta – rolls. Tissue or paper coated with a thin layer of linkrust plastic. Before applying the surface treated material – soil and trowel. For a primer is a mixture of natural drying oil, drier and iron-grated in the proportion of red lead 2:0,05:1. Components are thoroughly mixed, the mixture is applied to the surface, which is dried for 2-3 days.

This time can be devoted to other pursuits – others prefer to visit old friends, someone will remember that he was interested in psychological counseling in Kharkov. Then becomes putty. Fillers can be bought in DIY stores or make yourself ready. For this mixed water, natural linseed oil, chalk and dry carpenter's glue in the proportions 2:0,25:5:0,2. Glue diluted in water, pour in linseed oil, stirring constantly, and add chalk. Homogenise the surface. Dried and cleaned the walls primed again. Linkrust glued, not earlier than after a few days.

Linkrust blades cut the required size, it is important to combine the picture and make a stock for 10 inches of shrinkage. Then cut twisted into coils and soaked in hot water. After 5 minutes, set upright coils removed, drained of liquid. After that rolls are laid out on the floor face down for 6-12 hours. If the due date of not paste after drying the material may shrink. With bonded linkrusta cut off the top and bottom edges. Edge should be cut only gave the shrinkage and soaked cloth. Glue or linkrust bustilatom perchlorovinyl glue. After sticking linkrust dries from 7 to 10 days depending on the room temperature. Clearly, much time is difficult to control temperature. However, works such as 'Child Psychology' Uruntaevoy GA or 'laws of a happy life' Oleg Torsunov always help to distract from the temporary inconvenience.

Water Supply

Just about every water system at home is: by means of pump water, which has, for example, in a well or borehole is pumped into the tank in the attic, which is the upper floor, a special building, and already there from direct way of being at home all the instruments. Of course, this method should have its disadvantages are that: – the almost complete absence of the entire system pressure at the exit of all devices – a reservoir that contains water need to keep in the heat to avoid freezing in the winter – that is, isolate it from the influence of the environment – that would keep tank to the brim full of water, it is necessary to suffer some very considerable expenditure of energy, current modern plumbing elements that make up a reliable system of water supply house, slightly higher than the cost of plumbing 'of yore'. We know that Water in the Russian conditions is approximately at depths of up to an average of about 50 meters. Of course, used quite a different range of choice of pumps, for pumping water ispod land: pumps, which directly loaded to the source (the so-called deep). This species is most common in practice. -All known types of surface. But it will be interesting to know – they are very malomochnymi and can not deliver water from depths exceeding 10 meters, as they work through the self-priming.

Pumps with ejector unable to give us a satisfying liter, this significant negative feeling at depths exceeding 18 meters. The question arises – how do we regulate what a little pressure, which still occurs in the system? To do this, there is a special device – accumulator (a vessel with a membrane made from rubber, which divides it into two parts: one is water, and another is almost always injected nitrogen under pressure to 1.6 atm.) This device performs the same function of protecting the system from water hammer. It is clear that the large size of the vessel from which the accumulator is, avoid frequent switching the pump and have in place the so-called stock 'just in case'! It is clear that no one will be manually turned on and off the pump, this is a relay with 2-mA pressure sensors (a maximum and drop). The pump, which would avoid the pressure of the system, protect the check valve. He does not follow the water back into the hole. Of course, this design has the following advantages: automatic operation of the water supply system, the small size of devices that are responsible for delivering water to the output, has created pressure makes it possible to have hot water by heating devices. For all matters, what kind of water we use for food or just drink it! For It has a filter. And it is very important to pick them up, depending on water quality, that is, on its chemical composition. In this case, applying a set of filters with different orientations:-cleaning of large particles, for exclusion of water elements that affect the ill person.

Plastic Windows

Plastic windows in the central part of our cities are prohibited. It is no coincidence. According to experts, they are dissonant with the facades of ancient homes and destroy their harmony. The tree is in pole position. Especially, if properly care for this tree, no plastic can not be compared with him.

We are often told that the plastic window completely harmless, the manufacturer guarantees the company for 50 years – says the expert. – In such cases, I say show me a plastic box that is 49 years old, that I saw in what condition it will be over 50. Nobody can show you. And I can show you the wooden boxes that are 200 years old! They can be cleaned, painted again – and they more normally serve, – one of restavartoriv. Of course, for everybody, and for the woodwork, too, need care. In particular, as the restorer must choose the proper paint, in time to shoot old proshpaklevyvat and the like. The main thing – do not paint the woodwork steamproof paint, the problems start when the tree can not breathe.

Someone makes the paint itself, particularly abroad, – says restorer. – Yes, now we've learned that the paint is only in the store, but also our ancestors for decades painted windows. For example, from what has gone oil paint? This is a conventional oil, often made of linen, which is kneaded natural pigment. And create the paint. The problem is that the natural oil dries very slowly … Civilization makes to live in an increasingly fast pace, so for us is good and paint which dries quickly, does not smell and the like. Sometimes it's really good. Sometimes – no. In any case, be sure that the paint is vapor permeable. After the tree is living its own life. In the cold it shrinks, the heat swells … Over time, the paint mikrotrischiny appear. When rain falls, water falls through the cracks. In the place wood swells and gains moisture, it diverges giblets on a tree. And then this place is heated by the sun. The water does not evaporate, the tree does not dry, again swells – and begin a standard biological processes: there potraplyayut bacteria, the tree begins to rot. If the paint has been vapor-permeable, the sun warmed to the window – and it would have dried up. Currently there are free to purchase permeable paint. In addition, windows can be painted with modern water-based paints and oil. Abroad, however, the entire restoration of valuable woodwork – palaces, furniture, doors – hold on based only on natural pigments: ocher (burned and ground clay, which does not fade in the sun), scorched bones, which gives the black and the like. The paint (hand made) it preserves very well tree, it is hydrophobic, that is vapor permeable and vodootpornaya. Of course, in everyday circumstances, none of this would not bother, but the people buying the paint, should pay attention to it reminiscent of the film.