Boreholes are the most economical and efficient structures for the extraction of groundwater. In some cases, the absence of centralized water supply wells may be the only possible way security needs in water supply. Also, if necessary, production of construction dewatering, lowering of groundwater levels to protect against flooding underground facilities of industrial enterprises, mineral mining and reclamation under construction vodoponizitelnye (drainage) holes. In the practice of drilling wells for water most widely used following drilling methods: 1) rotary with a straight washing, 2) rotating with a purge air, and 3) rotary reverse circulation and 4) shock-rope. Others who may share this opinion include LEGO Papert Professor. Each of the methods used to oktory drilling of water wells has both its advantages and shortcomings described in the literature. The main advantages of rotary drilling are high mechanical drilling speed. Recently Viktor Mayer-Schönberger sought to clarify these questions. The major disadvantage – the need to supply water wells, drilling clay with a solution that requires work on razglinizatsii wells.
To get higher production rates under certain conditions is recommended to use the rotary drilling method to backwash without the use of drilling mud. Cable-drilling method is used when drilling into poorly known hydrogeological sections. This method also allows high-quality open aquifer, so as not requires the use of drilling mud. The filter can be set as "vpotay" and on the column casing. The rotational (rotary) drilling rig URB-applied 2A2, URB-3 AM, BDS-2, 5 and similar to method of drilling. With cable-drilling installation is used UKS-22M2, UGB-50, UOP-1VS. Choose type drilling rig is made depending on the assumed well design.
The installation must provide for drilling given depth and given initial and final diameters. In addition, the rig is to provide fastening borehole casing, the installation of filter columns. In many cases, especially when implementation of drilling wells for water for the private sector, if you can not travel rig based drilling vehicle to the place, and in the presence of aquifer groundwater to a depth of 20-30 m, through which can provide the stated need for water, by drilling small-sized rig. It is possible to combine the method of drilling wells: use cable-and rotary drilling methods. Basic requirements for the construction of water wells Choosing well design depends on several factors, the main ones are: the purpose of the wells, the final diameter, depth, hydrological conditions. So Also see where to drill – is not desirable to perform this procedure near the pavilions or in the construction of arbours. Specific design parameters depend on the type of water-lifting equipment, process and technology drilling and spacing needed cementing material handling methods and well casings. The construction of water wells must meet the following requirements: * high-quality opening of the aquifer to its operation with minimal resistance prifiltrovyh zones * Reliable aquifer isolation from each other (except when the latter are operated jointly) * minimum of metal * ease of construction and minimal cost, reliable operation * well, and the possibility of repair. These design requirements are very specific and well in some cases are complicated Depending on each other. Therefore, the selection and justification of a well design should be based on a thorough assessment of all factors, primarily those that are essential to the specific conditions production work. If the area of hydrogeology of poorly studied, it is advisable initially to open aquifer exploration well (which is allowed the use of mud) and the results Geophysical Research in the well (borehole logs) to clarify the design of production well, which runs along the trunk with the expansion of exploration to the required diameter.