Introduction to preprocessor What would be even an average programmer, it is necessary to provide functionality to the preprocessor. To understand the basics let's deal with the wording: preprocessor – a program that performs editing the original code. Ie It converts the code before the start of the program. Many web-programmers use a preprocessor to write websites, such as PHP and fully all the programmers in C + +, C and C Sharp use the required guidelines for each program. With them are allowed to easily create all kinds of constants, input files, ie great destination. The following discussion focuses on the most common directives – define and include. Commissioning include include set up to connect to the file several alternatives.

Immediately easy to understand the need to include. Suddenly, our portal has 81 or more pages, and everywhere the same name or a directory. You can only attach required us to file with ease include clarification and to reduce the amount of code. In the C programming language in each program distributed connection specialized guidelines for what would be inserted into the function worked, but not buggy. Just no one forbids you to connect and various files, such as mathematical and physical functions.

Let us now see an ad in practice: # include # sign before each indicated executed directive. A file name is either in quotes or in. Define Define Learning is used when necessary to declare a constant. The current operation is much reduced control and change the code. Thus, sufficient to fix the constant specified in a location, for that would change all the values. In addition, you can specify in a define directive, even the expression, but better not to act, for that would not make a mistake. We show a practical example define: # define OO 16 # define QQ (v) (v * v) Look, do not contains a general assignment symbols have meaning, and, at the end has no place to be. The next line of code appears macros rather than function. Prior to compile all the values of the macro, define changes in the operation or operations. With the conclusion directives discussed by the apparent frugality of code and simplify its understanding. In the structural or objective oriented programming these directives play a tremendous role. If you comprehend programming in C or PHP, you often insert include and define.


1. What is extruded aluminum? Extruded aluminum – is a complex process in terms of technology, which includes a set of operations and equipment used. The process involves the extrusion of aluminum closed cavity through a hole in the matrix corresponding to the pressed section profile. 2. What is a matrix (die, press tooling)? Tool for pressing (extrusion) of the metal, also called a "matrix kit" intended for use in the manufacture of aluminum profiles. The tool is not an independent instrument of production, and is considered only as a detachable part of press equipment, which varies depending on the desired geometry of the profile. The matrix itself is a steel disc with holes the size and shape designed to displace the profile of the desired shape.

3. How much is the matrix? The cost matrix depend on the type of aluminum: category A – standard profiles (gauge) Category B – moderately complex profiles and standard profiles with a wall thickness of less than 1.5 mm in the category C – profiles of high complexity, medium complexity profiles with a wall thickness of less than 1.0 mm in addition to that, the price depends on the matrix: an open or closed profile, the profile of output from the matrix. Price estimated at $ 650 to $ 3,500 4. Can use of a matrix with other presses? Rigging is applicable only for a particular company, press, profile, and can not be used for other production. This feature is due to process technology extruding metal (extrusion). 5.

What is the term of the matrix? Durability and reliability of its equipment in compliance with the rules depend on the operation of tools and technologies, as well as the level of training of workers. Resource of our press-tool 20-40t. 6. What is an aluminum alloy using? Aluminum alloy AD 31T. Most common in the world construction practices were aluminum alloys with magnesium (which increases the strength of the alloy) and silicon (which increases casting properties of aluminum) – in particular, the alloy AIMgSi0, 5 (avil). In our building codes that correspond to the fusion of brand and AD31T AD31T1. They are used to create a system of aluminum profiles for windows, doors and facade designs. 7. What is the maximum amount of aluminum? The maximum diameter of the profile described by 102mm. 8. What is the minimum wall thickness aluminum? Minimum wall thickness of -0.8 mm. 9. What is a chamber of aging? Camera artificial aging – oven, which is placed in containers with aluminum frame. Mode of operation: 160-180 for 6-12h. Maximum mechanical properties of aluminum are provided by artificial aging. Source:

Teenage Mutant Ninja Turtles

We grew up on a children's movie. Someone from the adults still loves him to watch. And of course, it is watched by our children. The main issue of child cinema, many now believe that the lack of good new national children's films. "We do not have any children's films today," – sighs of the audience, along with directors and film critics. Where is it, kids movies, and whether you need it at all today for our children? If you compare how many movies were filmed in the Soviet era and how many now, we can say that children's movies almost died. According to the director Leonid Nechaev snyavshego about 20 children's paintings, formerly in Goskino had a plan, and 100 movies made 30 children.

Today that number has decreased by ten times. And in the 90 years generally close to zero. As it turned out, many parents are happy to show his children just pre-perestroika Soviet cinema. And all would be nice, but still a new movie is not enough. Why? Firstly, because that children's movie should be relevant. Watch movies about pioneers is possible, but all the same kids since then little has changed, and changed the environment in which they live.

It is necessary to establish the fact that now the film with long plans, with prolonged story most kids will be boring to watch. And the children are familiar with computer technology, will be waiting for them in the movies. There is another reason why the new children's movie should be: children need today, modern, a real hero, in which they could play as played earlier in the scouts and Chapaev. With whom are children today? In Teenage Mutant Ninja Turtles and Spider-Man. Faute de mieux kids love Harry Potter and Jackie Chan. Children need a hero, Of course, not just to play it. Poor modern, often weak and insecure child can learn from the strong, brave, good character, living with him all sorts of difficult situations, making things, fighting for justice and always winning. So where is he, a modern hero of our child? .. Hey! But while the screen shows the lack of good modern children's films, we recommend you show the children the good old domestic children's films and cartoons. On this Site Children's cinema – baby domestic films, cartoons, films, fairy tales (Film Archive)

Board Games – For Home, Office, Travel

'All of our lives – the game' – said the great Shakespeare. And this is true, all kinds of games take a human life a great place. In our lives, much depends on the will of the case, we put on different masks and play one, then another role However, we will not go into philosophy. This article focuses on games in which most of us today is very rare. In an era of gaming desktop as it may seem like many, have no space left. However, none of the computer game can not give what they give us a board game, namely, – the joy of simple human communication. Board games – games that were played with a special equipment to be placed on the table or any other surface. In these games you can play at home, in office between work, leisure, and even on the road.

Players in these games can usually stay in one place. The number of participants can be fixed, such as chess or backgammon, or free – some card games, etc. skrebl And in some play alone (solitaire, puzzles). The history of board games began in ancient times. First, they were quite primitive, made a rough way.

Over time, board games have evolved, the rules become more complex, and their diversity is now striking. They are turn-based and dynamic, logical, and gambling, etc. Game may be the perfect corporate gift. It's a great way to relax. During the game, wakes up joyful excitement, good cheer, leaving anxiety that can be very positive impact on the decisions that the player will, after such a short respite. To this end, are perfect backgammon, checkers, dominoes, special interest mini billiard table, basketball and croquet. Board games – a great way to spend an evening with family. All family members, ranging from the smallest and ending with their grandparents, with pleasure gather at one table. This may be a good family tradition. A wonderful gift for the family – bingo skrebl, mapset mahjong, 'Monopoly'. Time on the road can go very slowly. Especially if the window dull landscape, there is still many, many hours of waiting, and you go kids. 'We'll come? " – You'll hear this question every five minutes. In this situation the best way – something to take the child. If you take any game on the road, the problem is solved. It could be playing cards, puzzles, tic-tac-toe, a maze, tag, or something else. From travel, we usually bring their friends and relatives of all sorts of souvenirs. In certain situations, such souvenirs can be board games, which were born in the country in which you are resting. For example, from Eastern countries can bring a beautiful backgammon or mahjong, from India – chess. These games will appreciate the gifts your loved ones, and deliver them, and you many pleasant moments and even the hours you spend with the game. In Finally, I want to say: if you have already forgotten what games and what wonderful feelings they can give – a pleasure, joy, excitement, – then it's time to rediscover them for herself. Give the board games close, family and colleagues – they will appreciate this original gift.


Playing with the image in the editor, sometimes you forget that photographers last required hours of work in the laboratory to ensure the similarity of those effects. That are possible today. Click the mouse, click a few buttons on keyboard, a pen conduct regular product of computer art. The coup, which took in photography digital era, to a large extent depends on the success of just one program – Photoshop. Her name has become synonymous. Agree that today we do not say "edit" – is heard everywhere, "otfotoshopit"; Photoshop – this is the habitat of many people who are somehow related to photography, printing or design.

Perhaps that is why photographers, designers, and just fotoentuziasty always look forward to the next version of the program – it opens in new horizons. Functions are simplified to perform the action becomes easier, the interface is more responsible not the software requirements, and our – human. The new version of Photoshop – CS4 – at the time was code name Stonehenge. Yes, it has become a monumental, like the monument of thousands of years – the developers contributed to the program significant changes. For example, improved integration with the purely photographic tool for Photoshop Lightroom, so that images can be freely transferred from one program to another.

Updated RAW-converter Adobe Photoshop Camera Raw 5. Significant changes have occurred in the functions of processing and the creation of three-dimensional objects, first introduced in version CS3. Refined many of the tools. For example, Dodge, Burn and Sponge have become more flexible and customizable. It is now much easier use the scroll image rotation and zooming. Interestingly, the algorithm for selecting the image size made a big change – now the program can take into account what objects are in the frame, and extend at least critical elements, leaving intact the right to maintain the proportion of objects. Changes a lot, and most important, the expected and useful. Download the trial and see new things with my own eyes, please visit. Yes, price of the new version has not changed – to become its owner can be over 18 000rub. and pay another 7000, you can enjoy version Extended. System requirements: – 512 mb ram (1 gb recommended) – 2 gb of free hard disk space for installation, additional free space required during installation (can not install on flash-based storage devices) – usb DVD-ROM – Screen resolution of 1024×768 (recommended 1280×800) with 16-bit video card – Some features GPU-accelerated features require graphics support for Shader Model 3.0 and OpenGL 2.0 – Drive DVD-ROM – Shader Model 3.0 – Software QuickTime 7.2, required for multimedia features – Broadband Internet connection required for online services.