The most commonly used for the manufacture of formwork steel, timber and plywood, and in recent years – plastic. Rational design are combined, in which the main and supporting elements is a metal, and as a deck that is in contact with the concrete – timber, water-resistant plywood, plastic. Quite often, use a fully metal casing. However, the metal casing in the winter to warm. Metal deck should be used for conversion in thermosetting casing. Entirely of wood or plywood formwork, while use (particularly well the first one), have several disadvantages: a large material consumption and low turnover. For similar reasons, inappropriate use of wooden posts as support formwork horizontal and inclined surfaces. Steel Formwork should be applied no less than brand FCZ.
To reduce the metal casing is desirable to use steel high marks, as well as bent and stamped profiles. For all kinds of connections, locks, spring clamps used special types of steel, including spring, marks 65G, 55GS, and others from the timber formwork using softwood and hardwood. Materials in contact with concrete, are made of lumber not less than grade III. In basically the same for the formwork is used softwood lumber: pine, spruce and larch, and hardwood – birch, and alder. Due to the cracking of the birch is not recommended to use it to make the deck. Supporting elements are made of lumber grade II, and for the runs using only wood of conifers. Of coniferous species produce the same inventory items formwork, stands taller than 3m, and other responsible design. For the manufacture of bearing cages are used softwood moisture content of 15% for all other elements – not more than 25%.
Board adjacent to the concrete, should be ostrogany and have a width not more 150mm. The thickness of the board shall appoint not less than 19mm. It is recommended to apply the sheet board. To apply the sliding formwork boards (staves), a width not exceeding 120 mm, mounted with a gap, which eliminates warping them. Most advisable to produce deck boards that are in contact with concrete, plywood. To do this, use water-resistant bakelite plywood grades and PBS FBSV 10mm or more. Synthetic surface veneer is much extends the life of the deck, lowers the adhesion to concrete and it allows you to receive high-quality concrete surfaces. To cover the plywood surfaces using a film based on paper or glass cloth impregnated with phenol formaldehyde or other polymers. Film is applied to the press with heated plates. Also used plastic film, fiberglass, fiberglass, laminates such as "getinaks" vinyl plastic. Plastics and film can be applied by pressure, sticker or freeze solid sheets. Applied as film coatings varnishes and paints. Most of the synthetic surfaces can be used to protect not only the plywood formwork and particleboard and fiberboard, and lumber. A number of coatings applied coating used to protect metal surfaces prior to coating which is etched and processed by mechanical means. Fully plastic casing is rarely used because of high costs and inefficiency. For the manufacture of such extensive use of glass reinforced plastic formwork sheet and a specially molded panels for formwork and other items. Leafy GRP is also used for the manufacture of concrete panel-cladding and insulation, these are also used for concrete, glass and other armotsement materials. – all building materials