Critical components of any color are pigments. The paint is often perceived by the person as a mixture of pigments and binders – linseed oil, emulsion, latex. Rarely thinks about how he created or different color. And it's useful to know, because the elements that make up the color may different ways to behave in certain conditions. For example, some pigments from the effects of temperature change color. Mixing Pigments in certain proportions, can produce different colors, shades and properties of paint. Pigments are natural and synthetic. Natural – a natural material consisting of minerals.

Ingoda they are subjected to temperature processing. But artificial materials generally have a more vivid, well-defined color. The main property of the pigments, which must take into account when creating a paint, a coloring power. It determines how a particular color of paint you need to transfer color when mixed with white pigment. By natural pigments include: graphite, chalk, ocher, sienna, umber. Chalk – a common mineral, often used in waterborne, alkyd, oil paints. Also, the white pigments include lime. Black pigments – graphite, charcoal, manganese peroxide.

Natural yellow pigment formed from the ocher. And the colors can vary (from barely noticeable lemon to orange), depending on heat treatment. To get brown paint used umber, burnt sienna. Under the influence of temperature changes the color of umber, acquires red. Artificial pigments, often more expensive than natural ones. But they are highly resistant to external influences, as well as they do not lose color saturation for a long time. For synthetic dyes include red lead, white lead, chromium oxide, crown, green, mummy, Mars, cobalt, vermilion, ultramarine blue, black, paint for facades made on these pigments. White – the basic, commonly used pigment white. There are zinc, lead, titanium white. White lead because of toxicity are rarely used in domestic work. Whiting, obtained from zinc oxide, are a frequent component of the enamel and oil paints. Most high levels of resistance, opacity – a titanium white. However, they also have their own feature – a gradual color change, the acquisition of a yellowish tinge. Therefore, in the paint with pigments are often added blue dyes. The basic black dye is black, the resulting combustion with insufficient oxygen. Pigments in red – vermilion, mummy. The mummy eventually loses saturation of red, dim. Cinnabar is toxic because of mercury content. Minium has orange-red. Minium-based paint Lead from the released toxins are rarely used indoors. Mars provide an opportunity to get several warm shades – from yellow to red brown. To obtain a yellow crown use – lead, strontium, zinc. Lead crown harmful as other paints with a similar basis. Blue pigments colors are blue, cobalt, ultramarine. Green color is formed by adding zinc or lead paint pigment green. It in turn is made by mixing paint and yacht crown (yellow). Independently mix pigments found in its pure form is extremely dangerous. Dust clouds, falling into the organism can cause serious damage to health.

Modern Decorating Material

Linkrust – a modern decoration material, which is characterized by strength, durability and hygroscopicity. The material washes well, allows the use of disinfectants for decontamination. Form of linkrusta – rolls. Tissue or paper coated with a thin layer of linkrust plastic. Before applying the surface treated material – soil and trowel. For a primer is a mixture of natural drying oil, drier and iron-grated in the proportion of red lead 2:0,05:1. Components are thoroughly mixed, the mixture is applied to the surface, which is dried for 2-3 days.

This time can be devoted to other pursuits – others prefer to visit old friends, someone will remember that he was interested in psychological counseling in Kharkov. Then becomes putty. Fillers can be bought in DIY stores or make yourself ready. For this mixed water, natural linseed oil, chalk and dry carpenter's glue in the proportions 2:0,25:5:0,2. Glue diluted in water, pour in linseed oil, stirring constantly, and add chalk. Homogenise the surface. Dried and cleaned the walls primed again. Linkrust glued, not earlier than after a few days.

Linkrust blades cut the required size, it is important to combine the picture and make a stock for 10 inches of shrinkage. Then cut twisted into coils and soaked in hot water. After 5 minutes, set upright coils removed, drained of liquid. After that rolls are laid out on the floor face down for 6-12 hours. If the due date of not paste after drying the material may shrink. With bonded linkrusta cut off the top and bottom edges. Edge should be cut only gave the shrinkage and soaked cloth. Glue or linkrust bustilatom perchlorovinyl glue. After sticking linkrust dries from 7 to 10 days depending on the room temperature. Clearly, much time is difficult to control temperature. However, works such as 'Child Psychology' Uruntaevoy GA or 'laws of a happy life' Oleg Torsunov always help to distract from the temporary inconvenience.

Water Supply

Just about every water system at home is: by means of pump water, which has, for example, in a well or borehole is pumped into the tank in the attic, which is the upper floor, a special building, and already there from direct way of being at home all the instruments. Of course, this method should have its disadvantages are that: – the almost complete absence of the entire system pressure at the exit of all devices – a reservoir that contains water need to keep in the heat to avoid freezing in the winter – that is, isolate it from the influence of the environment – that would keep tank to the brim full of water, it is necessary to suffer some very considerable expenditure of energy, current modern plumbing elements that make up a reliable system of water supply house, slightly higher than the cost of plumbing 'of yore'. We know that Water in the Russian conditions is approximately at depths of up to an average of about 50 meters. Of course, used quite a different range of choice of pumps, for pumping water ispod land: pumps, which directly loaded to the source (the so-called deep). This species is most common in practice. -All known types of surface. But it will be interesting to know – they are very malomochnymi and can not deliver water from depths exceeding 10 meters, as they work through the self-priming.

Pumps with ejector unable to give us a satisfying liter, this significant negative feeling at depths exceeding 18 meters. The question arises – how do we regulate what a little pressure, which still occurs in the system? To do this, there is a special device – accumulator (a vessel with a membrane made from rubber, which divides it into two parts: one is water, and another is almost always injected nitrogen under pressure to 1.6 atm.) This device performs the same function of protecting the system from water hammer. It is clear that the large size of the vessel from which the accumulator is, avoid frequent switching the pump and have in place the so-called stock 'just in case'! It is clear that no one will be manually turned on and off the pump, this is a relay with 2-mA pressure sensors (a maximum and drop). The pump, which would avoid the pressure of the system, protect the check valve. He does not follow the water back into the hole. Of course, this design has the following advantages: automatic operation of the water supply system, the small size of devices that are responsible for delivering water to the output, has created pressure makes it possible to have hot water by heating devices. For all matters, what kind of water we use for food or just drink it! For It has a filter. And it is very important to pick them up, depending on water quality, that is, on its chemical composition. In this case, applying a set of filters with different orientations:-cleaning of large particles, for exclusion of water elements that affect the ill person.

Tourism Development

Advances in technology of aviation and engineering systems, ground transportation, as well as systems of electronic data continues to be carried out throughout the 90s. The development of travel will be more rapid, direct, network a variety of routes and less costly. At the same time will improve the means of information support and booking trips. The development of trade. In the 90 years the circumstances of international trade become more liberalized, although the apparent constraints caused by the Uruguay Round of GATT. International trade remains a significant practical development in an environment where more countries actively involved in both exports and imports. Installed and is more regional agreements, such as the type of a free trade agreement in North America (NAFTA), which in turn supports tourism between countries.

Expanding international networks and tour operators. Transport infrastructure. The expected scale of tourism growth will affect the construction and entertainment required by tourists. The largest problems in this regard arise in the field of transport infrastructure (airports, road and rail networks). Moreover, the expected reconstruction of transport infrastructure in all parts of the world.

Take one example: was only two years (1994, 1995) as an active airport in Hong Kong has reached its capacity, and in 1997 opened a new airport. In the same period, Hong Kong airport congestion have reduced their potential for business activity. Without any reference to the global air transport processes and the real prospect of the difficulties lies in the fact that air travel and tourism growth would be subject to collision in many parts of the world during the 90s.

Plastic Windows

Plastic windows in the central part of our cities are prohibited. It is no coincidence. According to experts, they are dissonant with the facades of ancient homes and destroy their harmony. The tree is in pole position. Especially, if properly care for this tree, no plastic can not be compared with him.

We are often told that the plastic window completely harmless, the manufacturer guarantees the company for 50 years – says the expert. – In such cases, I say show me a plastic box that is 49 years old, that I saw in what condition it will be over 50. Nobody can show you. And I can show you the wooden boxes that are 200 years old! They can be cleaned, painted again – and they more normally serve, – one of restavartoriv. Of course, for everybody, and for the woodwork, too, need care. In particular, as the restorer must choose the proper paint, in time to shoot old proshpaklevyvat and the like. The main thing – do not paint the woodwork steamproof paint, the problems start when the tree can not breathe.

Someone makes the paint itself, particularly abroad, – says restorer. – Yes, now we've learned that the paint is only in the store, but also our ancestors for decades painted windows. For example, from what has gone oil paint? This is a conventional oil, often made of linen, which is kneaded natural pigment. And create the paint. The problem is that the natural oil dries very slowly … Civilization makes to live in an increasingly fast pace, so for us is good and paint which dries quickly, does not smell and the like. Sometimes it's really good. Sometimes – no. In any case, be sure that the paint is vapor permeable. After the tree is living its own life. In the cold it shrinks, the heat swells … Over time, the paint mikrotrischiny appear. When rain falls, water falls through the cracks. In the place wood swells and gains moisture, it diverges giblets on a tree. And then this place is heated by the sun. The water does not evaporate, the tree does not dry, again swells – and begin a standard biological processes: there potraplyayut bacteria, the tree begins to rot. If the paint has been vapor-permeable, the sun warmed to the window – and it would have dried up. Currently there are free to purchase permeable paint. In addition, windows can be painted with modern water-based paints and oil. Abroad, however, the entire restoration of valuable woodwork – palaces, furniture, doors – hold on based only on natural pigments: ocher (burned and ground clay, which does not fade in the sun), scorched bones, which gives the black and the like. The paint (hand made) it preserves very well tree, it is hydrophobic, that is vapor permeable and vodootpornaya. Of course, in everyday circumstances, none of this would not bother, but the people buying the paint, should pay attention to it reminiscent of the film.